Horn Effect

Horn effect site

Verified by World Mental Healthcare Association

The horn effect is a cognitive bias that can have far-reaching consequences, particularly in domains like hiring and performance evaluations. This bias stems from a tendency to allow a single negative trait or behavior to create an overall impression of a person, which can result in unfair judgments regarding promotions, relationships, and more.

What Is Horn Effect?

The horn effect refers to an individual’s overall perception of someone or something which is negatively influenced 1 Burton, S., Cook, L. A., Howlett, E., & Newman, C. L. (2014). Broken halos and shattered horns: overcoming the biasing effects of prior expectations through objective information disclosure. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(2), 240–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0378-5 by a single negative behavior or action, resulting in a tendency to view people as generally incompetent or untrustworthy, despite the presence of positive qualities or behaviors. It is also known as the reverse halo effect.

The halo and horn effect are opposite biases that can impact an individual’s judgments of people. The halo effect 2 Gabrieli, G., Lee, A., Setoh, P., & Esposito, G. (2021). An Analysis of the Generalizability and Stability of the Halo Effect During the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 631871. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.631871 occurs when people have an overall positive impression of someone, which can lead individuals to see their traits or actions in a positive light, even if there is no evidence to support those perceptions.

In contrast, the horn effect occurs when people have an overall negative impression 3 Senft, N., Hamel, L. M., Penner, L. A., Harper, F. W. K., Albrecht, T. L., Foster, T., & Eggly, S. (2018). The influence of affective behavior on impression formation in interactions between black cancer patients and their oncologists. Social science & medicine (1982), 211, 243–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.022 of someone, ultimately, which affects not only an individual’s professional life but also their personal well-being.

Examples Of Horn Effect

Here are some examples 4 Walker, I., Thomas, G. O., Natarajan, S., & Holt, N. (2020). Judgments of a Product’s Quality and Perceptions of User Experience Can Be Mediated by Brief Messaging That Matches the Person’s Pre-existing Attitudes. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1261. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01261 of the horn effect:

  1. Getting rejected for a job solely based on a negative comment 5 Rhead, R. D., Chui, Z., Bakolis, I., Gazard, B., Harwood, H., MacCrimmon, S., Woodhead, C., & Hatch, S. L. (2020). Impact of workplace discrimination and harassment among National Health Service staff working in London trusts: results from the TIDES study. BJPsych open, 7(1), e10. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.137 from a previous employer, despite having an impressive resume and excellent qualifications.
  2. Criticizing a celebrity harshly for one mistake they made, such as a controversial tweet 6 Li, X., Ju, C., Li, K., Wang, C., Li, C., & Yu, J. (2022). Research on the dissemination of celebrities’ opinions based on speech act theory and potential category analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 13, 1041644. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1041644 , and as a result, they are seen as an overall negative or untrustworthy figure in the eyes of the public.
  3. Tagging an athlete as a “bad player” who makes a few critical mistakes 7 Calleja-Gonzalez, J., Marques-Jimenez, D., Jones, M., Huyghe, T., Navarro, F., Delextrat, A., Jukic, I., Ostojic, S. M., Sampaio, J. E., Schelling, X., Alcaraz, P. E., Sanchez-Bañuelos, F., Leibar, X., Mielgo-Ayuso, J., & Terrados, N. (2020). What Are We Doing Wrong When Athletes Report Higher Levels of Fatigue From Traveling Than From Training or Competition?. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 194. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00194 in a game, despite having a history of outstanding performances in previous games.
  4. A negative opinion from a customer of a brand based on a single negative experience 8 Merdiaty, N., & Aldrin, N. (2022). Effect of Brand Experience on Customer Engagement Through Quality Services of Online Sellers to Students in Bekasi. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 801439. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.801439 leads everyone else to avoid the brand altogether in the future.
The Halo Effect vs The Horn effect

Horn Effect Bias In Recruitment

The cognitive bias of horn effect is applicable in day-to-day life and other settings, however, when it comes to job recruitment, horn effect is profound. It can be damaging as it allows:

  • A single negative trait or behavior of a job candidate overshadows 9 Trofimova I. (2014). Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material. PloS one, 9(1), e85677. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085677 their positive qualifications and attributes
  • Unfair judgments of candidate’s competence or trustworthiness 10 Firth-Cozens, J. (2004). Organisational trust: the keystone to patient safety. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13(1), 56–61. https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2003.007971
  • Significant negative consequences include missed opportunities for talent acquisition and a less effective workforce 11 Treweek, S., Pitkethly, M., Cook, J., Fraser, C., Mitchell, E., Sullivan, F., Jackson, C., Taskila, T. K., & Gardner, H. (2018). Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised trials. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2(2), MR000013. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub6

What Causes Horn Effect

Different causes can create the horn effect bias 12 Talamas, S. N., Mavor, K. I., & Perrett, D. I. (2016). Blinded by Beauty: Attractiveness Bias and Accurate Perceptions of Academic Performance. PloS one, 11(2), e0148284. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148284 in various social situations, including:

  1. A negative first impression 13 Gilron, R., & Gutchess, A. H. (2012). Remembering first impressions: effects of intentionality and diagnosticity on subsequent memory. Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience, 12(1), 85–98. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-011-0074-6 such as communication style and body language can lead to a person being viewed overall negatively, regardless of subsequent positive interactions.
  2. A lack of complete information 14 Case, D. O., Andrews, J. E., Johnson, J. D., & Allard, S. L. (2005). Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts. Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA, 93(3), 353–362. about a person or situation can make it easier for biased judgments to form based on a small amount of available information.
  3. A person may hold negative stereotypes 15 Welborn, B. L., Hong, Y., & Ratner, K. G. (2020). Exposure to negative stereotypes influences representations of monetary incentives in the nucleus accumbens. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 15(3), 347–358. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa041 about a particular group of people, which can influence their perception of individuals within that group.
  4. The emotional state 16 Clore, G. L., & Huntsinger, J. R. (2007). How emotions inform judgment and regulate thought. Trends in cognitive sciences, 11(9), 393–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2007.08.005 of an individual can influence their perception and evaluation of others, potentially leading to judgments.
  5. A person may develop a negative impression of someone simply due to repeated exposure 17 Zhao, S., Xiang, Y., Xie, J., Ye, Y., Li, T., & Mo, L. (2017). The Positivity Bias Phenomenon in Face Perception Given Different Information on Ability. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 570. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00570 to their negative behavior or traits, regardless of any positive interactions or qualities.

Read More About Stereotypes Here

What Are The Effects Of Horn Effect

The horn effect can have negative mental health effects 18 Lord, K. A., Jacobson, N. C., Suvak, M. K., & Newman, M. G. (2020). Social criticism moderates the relationship between anxiety and depression 10 years later. Journal of affective disorders, 274, 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.05.030 on both the person being judged and the person doing the judging, such as:

  • If someone is repeatedly judged based on a single negative trait, it can lead to a cycle of negative thinking, which can lead to self-doubt.
  • Repeatedly being judged based on a single negative trait can lead to feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and social withdrawal.
  • The horn effect bias can make a person feel that they need to be flawless to avoid negative judgment. This can cause stress as they constantly strive to meet unrealistic expectations.
  • The horn effect can also contribute to a lack of empathy or understanding toward others.
  • The person using horn effect biases would be affected by their perception of others, leading to a more negative outlook on life.

How Does Horn Effect Impact Professional Well-being?

Here are some ways that the horn effect can create a negative impact 19 Rasool, S. F., Wang, M., Tang, M., Saeed, A., & Iqbal, J. (2021). How Toxic Workplace Environment Effects the Employee Engagement: The Mediating Role of Organizational Support and Employee Wellbeing. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(5), 2294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052294 on an employee’s professional life:

1. Lower Performance Evaluations

Employees who are subject to the horn effect may receive lower performance evaluations 20 van Woerkom, M., & Kroon, B. (2020). The Effect of Strengths-Based Performance Appraisal on Perceived Supervisor Support and the Motivation to Improve Performance. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1883. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01883 or ratings, which can result in reduced compensation including not getting a bonus or lower pay.

2. Limited Opportunities for Advancement

If an employee is subject to the horn effect, they may be overlooked for promotions 21 Merkel, S., Ruokolainen, M., & Holman, D. (2019). Challenges and practices in promoting (ageing) employees working career in the health care sector – case studies from Germany, Finland and the UK. BMC health services research, 19(1), 918. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4655-3 or other career advancement opportunities, even if they are highly qualified and capable.

3. Negative Reputation

If an employee’s negative traits or behaviors are the focus of the horn effect bias, they may develop a negative reputation 22 Pfeiffer, T., Tran, L., Krumme, C., & Rand, D. G. (2012). The value of reputation. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 9(76), 2791–2797. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2012.0332 in the workplace, which can limit their ability to build positive relationships with colleagues and managers.

4. Decreased Job Satisfaction

Being subject to the horn effect can lead to feelings of frustration, demotivation, and job dissatisfaction, which can have a negative impact on an employee’s overall well-being 23 Rajgopal T. (2010). Mental well-being at the workplace. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 14(3), 63–65. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.75691 and productivity.

5. Unfair Treatment

The horn effect bias can lead to unfair treatment of employees, as they may be judged more harshly than their colleagues who do not display the same negative traits or behaviors. This can create a sense of injustice and inequity in the workplace 24 Ishida H. (2013). Inequality in workplace conditions and health outcomes. Industrial health, 51(5), 501–513. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2013-0028 .

How Do You Reduce The Horn Effect

Some strategies that can help individuals overcome the horn effect bias in social situations include:

  1. Recognizing it by being aware of your thoughts and feelings 25 Ayal, S., Rusou, Z., Zakay, D., & Hochman, G. (2015). Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1088. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01088 towards others based on one negative trait or behavior.
  2. Instead of focusing on the negative trait, look for positive traits 26 Gruber, J., & Johnson, S. L. (2009). Positive Emotional Traits and Ambitious Goals among People at Risk for Mania: The Need for Specificity. International journal of cognitive therapy, 2(2), 176–187. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2009.2.2.176 in the person. Focus on their strengths and abilities instead of their weaknesses.
  3. Put yourself in the other person’s shoes and try to understand 27 Juckel, G., Heinisch, C., Welpinghus, A., & Brüne, M. (2018). Understanding Another Person’s Emotions-An Interdisciplinary Research Approach. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 414. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00414 their perspective. This can help you develop empathy towards them and reduce the horn effect bias.
  4. Give feedback 28 Hardavella, G., Aamli-Gaagnat, A., Saad, N., Rousalova, I., & Sreter, K. B. (2017). How to give and receive
    feedback effectively. Breathe (Sheffield, England), 13(4), 327–333. https://doi.org/10.1183/20734735.009917
    to address negative traits or behavior. It can help in improving and changing your perception of them.
  5. Engage with diverse people 29 Swartz, T. H., Palermo, A. S., Masur, S. K., & Aberg, J. A. (2019). The Science and Value of Diversity: Closing the Gaps in Our Understanding of Inclusion and Diversity. The Journal of infectious diseases, 220(220 Suppl 2), S33–S41. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz174 to challenge biases and stereotypes, leading to more accurate perceptions of others.
  6. Use objective measures 30 Jaksic, C., & Schlegel, K. (2020). Accuracy in Judging Others’ Personalities: The Role of Emotion Recognition, Emotion Understanding, and Trait Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Intelligence, 8(3), 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8030034 like performance metrics, qualifications, and experience to evaluate others and to reduce the influence of subjective horn effect biases.
  7. Be open-minded 31 Wang, C., Wu, S. Y., Nie, Y. Z., Cui, G. Y., & Hou, X. Y. (2022). Open-mindedness trait affects the development of intercultural communication competence in short-term overseas study programs: a mixed-method exploration. BMC medical education, 22(1), 219. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03281-2 towards others to be receptive to positive qualities and achievements that may go unnoticed due to the horn effect bias.

Takeaway

The horn effect can have a significant impact on how people perceive and evaluate others, often leading to biased and unfair judgments based on limited or incomplete information. By recognizing the existence of the horn effect and actively working to counteract its influence, individuals can overcome the bias and form more accurate and objective perceptions of others, which can lead to positive and equitable outcomes in both personal and professional contexts.

At A Glance

  1. The horn effect is a cognitive bias where individuals make negative judgments about someone based on one’s negative behavior.
  2. The halo vs horn effect refers to two cognitive biases to the influence of overall impressions on judgments of specific traits or actions.
  3. Horn effect examples include judging intelligence based on physical appearance, and assuming untrustworthiness due to negative past records.
  4. The horn effect in recruitment is when interviewers focus on a candidate’s negative traits, leading to negative judgments about their overall abilities.
  5. The horn effect can be caused by the tendency to let one negative trait or behavior overshadow other positive qualities of a person.
  6. The horn effect can impact professional life by unfairly influencing hiring or promotion decisions based on one negative aspect of a person.
  7. Tips to overcome the horn effect include recognizing it, using objective measures, engaging with diversity, and maintaining an open-minded attitude.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. What is another name for horn effect?

The horn effect is also known as the “reverse halo effect” or the “devil effect.”

2. Is horn effect positive or negative?

The horn effect is a negative cognitive bias as it involves the tendency to judge a person’s overall abilities or qualities based on a single negative trait or behavior.

3. What are the advantages of horn effect?

There are no advantages of the horn effect as it is a cognitive bias that can lead to unfair judgments and negative consequences.

4. How do you overcome the horn effect?

To reduce the horn effect it is important to focus on identifying and highlighting positive qualities and accomplishments of the person, rather than solely focusing on their negative traits or behaviors. This can help to create a more balanced and accurate perception of the individual.

References:

  • 1
    Burton, S., Cook, L. A., Howlett, E., & Newman, C. L. (2014). Broken halos and shattered horns: overcoming the biasing effects of prior expectations through objective information disclosure. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(2), 240–256. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11747-014-0378-5
  • 2
    Gabrieli, G., Lee, A., Setoh, P., & Esposito, G. (2021). An Analysis of the Generalizability and Stability of the Halo Effect During the COVID-19 Pandemic Outbreak. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 631871. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.631871
  • 3
    Senft, N., Hamel, L. M., Penner, L. A., Harper, F. W. K., Albrecht, T. L., Foster, T., & Eggly, S. (2018). The influence of affective behavior on impression formation in interactions between black cancer patients and their oncologists. Social science & medicine (1982), 211, 243–250. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.06.022
  • 4
    Walker, I., Thomas, G. O., Natarajan, S., & Holt, N. (2020). Judgments of a Product’s Quality and Perceptions of User Experience Can Be Mediated by Brief Messaging That Matches the Person’s Pre-existing Attitudes. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1261. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01261
  • 5
    Rhead, R. D., Chui, Z., Bakolis, I., Gazard, B., Harwood, H., MacCrimmon, S., Woodhead, C., & Hatch, S. L. (2020). Impact of workplace discrimination and harassment among National Health Service staff working in London trusts: results from the TIDES study. BJPsych open, 7(1), e10. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjo.2020.137
  • 6
    Li, X., Ju, C., Li, K., Wang, C., Li, C., & Yu, J. (2022). Research on the dissemination of celebrities’ opinions based on speech act theory and potential category analysis. Frontiers in psychology, 13, 1041644. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2022.1041644
  • 7
    Calleja-Gonzalez, J., Marques-Jimenez, D., Jones, M., Huyghe, T., Navarro, F., Delextrat, A., Jukic, I., Ostojic, S. M., Sampaio, J. E., Schelling, X., Alcaraz, P. E., Sanchez-Bañuelos, F., Leibar, X., Mielgo-Ayuso, J., & Terrados, N. (2020). What Are We Doing Wrong When Athletes Report Higher Levels of Fatigue From Traveling Than From Training or Competition?. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 194. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.00194
  • 8
    Merdiaty, N., & Aldrin, N. (2022). Effect of Brand Experience on Customer Engagement Through Quality Services of Online Sellers to Students in Bekasi. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 801439. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.801439
  • 9
    Trofimova I. (2014). Observer bias: an interaction of temperament traits with biases in the semantic perception of lexical material. PloS one, 9(1), e85677. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085677
  • 10
    Firth-Cozens, J. (2004). Organisational trust: the keystone to patient safety. Quality and Safety in Health Care, 13(1), 56–61. https://doi.org/10.1136/qshc.2003.007971
  • 11
    Treweek, S., Pitkethly, M., Cook, J., Fraser, C., Mitchell, E., Sullivan, F., Jackson, C., Taskila, T. K., & Gardner, H. (2018). Strategies to improve recruitment to randomised trials. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2(2), MR000013. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.MR000013.pub6
  • 12
    Talamas, S. N., Mavor, K. I., & Perrett, D. I. (2016). Blinded by Beauty: Attractiveness Bias and Accurate Perceptions of Academic Performance. PloS one, 11(2), e0148284. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0148284
  • 13
    Gilron, R., & Gutchess, A. H. (2012). Remembering first impressions: effects of intentionality and diagnosticity on subsequent memory. Cognitive, affective & behavioral neuroscience, 12(1), 85–98. https://doi.org/10.3758/s13415-011-0074-6
  • 14
    Case, D. O., Andrews, J. E., Johnson, J. D., & Allard, S. L. (2005). Avoiding versus seeking: the relationship of information seeking to avoidance, blunting, coping, dissonance, and related concepts. Journal of the Medical Library Association : JMLA, 93(3), 353–362.
  • 15
    Welborn, B. L., Hong, Y., & Ratner, K. G. (2020). Exposure to negative stereotypes influences representations of monetary incentives in the nucleus accumbens. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience, 15(3), 347–358. https://doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa041
  • 16
    Clore, G. L., & Huntsinger, J. R. (2007). How emotions inform judgment and regulate thought. Trends in cognitive sciences, 11(9), 393–399. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2007.08.005
  • 17
    Zhao, S., Xiang, Y., Xie, J., Ye, Y., Li, T., & Mo, L. (2017). The Positivity Bias Phenomenon in Face Perception Given Different Information on Ability. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 570. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00570
  • 18
    Lord, K. A., Jacobson, N. C., Suvak, M. K., & Newman, M. G. (2020). Social criticism moderates the relationship between anxiety and depression 10 years later. Journal of affective disorders, 274, 15–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.05.030
  • 19
    Rasool, S. F., Wang, M., Tang, M., Saeed, A., & Iqbal, J. (2021). How Toxic Workplace Environment Effects the Employee Engagement: The Mediating Role of Organizational Support and Employee Wellbeing. International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(5), 2294. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052294
  • 20
    van Woerkom, M., & Kroon, B. (2020). The Effect of Strengths-Based Performance Appraisal on Perceived Supervisor Support and the Motivation to Improve Performance. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1883. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01883
  • 21
    Merkel, S., Ruokolainen, M., & Holman, D. (2019). Challenges and practices in promoting (ageing) employees working career in the health care sector – case studies from Germany, Finland and the UK. BMC health services research, 19(1), 918. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4655-3
  • 22
    Pfeiffer, T., Tran, L., Krumme, C., & Rand, D. G. (2012). The value of reputation. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface, 9(76), 2791–2797. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsif.2012.0332
  • 23
    Rajgopal T. (2010). Mental well-being at the workplace. Indian journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 14(3), 63–65. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5278.75691
  • 24
    Ishida H. (2013). Inequality in workplace conditions and health outcomes. Industrial health, 51(5), 501–513. https://doi.org/10.2486/indhealth.2013-0028
  • 25
    Ayal, S., Rusou, Z., Zakay, D., & Hochman, G. (2015). Determinants of judgment and decision making quality: the interplay between information processing style and situational factors. Frontiers in psychology, 6, 1088. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01088
  • 26
    Gruber, J., & Johnson, S. L. (2009). Positive Emotional Traits and Ambitious Goals among People at Risk for Mania: The Need for Specificity. International journal of cognitive therapy, 2(2), 176–187. https://doi.org/10.1521/ijct.2009.2.2.176
  • 27
    Juckel, G., Heinisch, C., Welpinghus, A., & Brüne, M. (2018). Understanding Another Person’s Emotions-An Interdisciplinary Research Approach. Frontiers in psychiatry, 9, 414. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00414
  • 28
    Hardavella, G., Aamli-Gaagnat, A., Saad, N., Rousalova, I., & Sreter, K. B. (2017). How to give and receive
    feedback effectively. Breathe (Sheffield, England), 13(4), 327–333. https://doi.org/10.1183/20734735.009917
  • 29
    Swartz, T. H., Palermo, A. S., Masur, S. K., & Aberg, J. A. (2019). The Science and Value of Diversity: Closing the Gaps in Our Understanding of Inclusion and Diversity. The Journal of infectious diseases, 220(220 Suppl 2), S33–S41. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz174
  • 30
    Jaksic, C., & Schlegel, K. (2020). Accuracy in Judging Others’ Personalities: The Role of Emotion Recognition, Emotion Understanding, and Trait Emotional Intelligence. Journal of Intelligence, 8(3), 34. https://doi.org/10.3390/jintelligence8030034
  • 31
    Wang, C., Wu, S. Y., Nie, Y. Z., Cui, G. Y., & Hou, X. Y. (2022). Open-mindedness trait affects the development of intercultural communication competence in short-term overseas study programs: a mixed-method exploration. BMC medical education, 22(1), 219. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03281-2
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